%���� These chiefs traditionally represented the village’s governing body, ideally four clans to a village, though the majority of today’s Minangkabau communities abide primarily by laws set by the state. Nonetheless, female-identified Guna women are prized in society, largely as breadwinners who sell embroidery and other handicrafts to tourists or run small shops and food stands. The high proportion of multi-generation co-resident family type observed among the participant families was supported by two recent studies in this province about the impacts of one-child policy on family structures [33, 34]. Although enhanced ventilation, such as opening doors or windows, could reduce the concentration of smoke and thus prevent or reduce irritations of the children caused by tobacco smoke, it might take some time to reduce the concentration. Children belong to their mother's family; If a child misbehaves, the blame goes to the mother's relations, and they are made to take responsibility for the offence; A man only trains his sister's children, not his own; Intermarriage is possible among those related along the paternal line (same. Caught in a dilemma: why do non-smoking women in China support the smoking behaviors of men in their families? Levi Strauss (1967) observed and chronicled the cultural roots of patriarchy and highlighted a key implicit component, that of the objectification and devaluation of women by men. $O./� �'�z8�W�Gб� x�� 0Y驾A��@$/7z�� ���H��e��O���OҬT� �_��lN:K��"N����3"��$�F��/JP�rb�[䥟}�Q��d[��S��l1��x{��#b�G�\N��o�X3I���[ql2�� �$�8�x����t�r p��/8�p��C���f�q��.K�njm͠{r2�8��?�����. Due to predominant patrilineal post-marital residence in China [32], there were only three matrilineal post-residence among the 21 extended families, whereas the other 18 families were patrilineal. The production of the large balls (see Photographic section ‐ Ohafia, Image 4) in Ohafia is called isu ahu (pounding of melon). In conclusion, as the first qualitative study examining family dynamics involved in home smoking in China, findings from this study have provided direction for developing gender-sensitive smoking cessation initiatives to protect children’s health. The nutrient composition of the African yambean is comparable to that of cowpea and other legumes consumed in Nigeria, whereas its amino acid profile/protein quality is superior to cowpea and soyabean (Ene‐Obong & Carnovale, 1992; Ene‐Obong & Obizoba, 1995). and gather uncultivated plants such as Gnetum africanum, Irvingia spp, velvet tamarind (Dialium guineense), Pentaclethra macrophylla, king tuber mushrooms (Pleurotus tuber regimium), Brachystegia eurycoma, Detarium macrocarpum, Monodora myristica, Piper guineense, and Grongronema latifollis to supplement the farm produce (Okeke et al., 2009). The reasons for the desire included the risks of smoking to health, unpleasant smell, extra cleaning work and increased expenditures. The mother participants and father participants all finished middle school education. During the FGD, men in Akanu Ohafia voiced statements like this concerning headship of the family: “The head of every matrimonial family must be a man.” This statement was supported by both male and female discussants from the other areas of Ohafia where the FGD took place. Though Muslim women are often viewed as oppressed by Westerners, the Minangkabau practice Islam while simultaneously raising up girls and respecting women’s views as equal to men’s, with no religious conflict. The family composites and home smoking in the participant families. The senior smokers’ elevated awareness about the need to protect children from SHS has potential for reducing children’s exposure to smoke. This alternative way of expressing her unhappiness avoided direct confrontation and did not anger the senior. The researcher translated and coded the first six interviews and sent the transcripts to a qualitative research expert who was a professor in anthropology in a university in the UK. Gardens and other family property are passed from mother to daughter, who is then responsible for feeding her family and clan. The findings indicate that young mothers’ interventions to reduce family men’s home smoking were mediated by gendered relationships between the mothers and the smokers.