Chlorous acid is a strong oxidizing acid, which has a similar effect and mechanism to chlorine and chlorine dioxide discussed above (Orr and Beuchat 2000; Lee and others 2004). However, lemon myrtle, the most cytotoxic of the four essential oils shown, did cause adverse effects in a wound healing pilot study when used at 3% (Kerr 2002).
Simple phenols such as phenol, the isomeric cresols, xylenols, ethyl phenols, and guaiacols arise through the thermal degradation of benzoic acid derivatives from malt and from peat smoke. The absorption spectrum of maximum wavelength region occurs at 460 and 488 nm in toluene, 549 nm in ethanol, and 524 nm in acetonitrile. The initial rates are nearly the same for both samples. rittmannii (Nicolaus and others 1998). Natural Science Foundation of China (31071550, 31171721). This structure may be vibronic or may originate in different electronic transitions from the different functionalities present in the curcumin molecule. It is used in the synthesis of expectorant such as guaifenesin and sulfoguaiacol. It is the interaction of the two chromophores that allows the photochemical reactions of curcumin to be initiated by visible light. An estimated 85% of the vanillin is produced from guaiacol. The mechanism might include the loss of ions, the permeabilization of cell membrane, the reduction of membrane potential (Dorman and Deans 2000), the coagulation of cytoplasm, and damage to lipids and proteins (Jerkovic and others 2001). Nevertheless, analytical methods have always been the most widely applied methods to detect the off‐flavor compound of Alicyclobacillus, including extraction/sample preparation methods, such as liquid–liquid extraction (LLE) (Pettipher and others 1997; Gocmen and others 2005), solid‐phase extraction (SPE) (López and others 2002), solid‐phase microextraction (SPME) (Wardencki and others 2004), and the most popular one, headspace solid‐phase extraction (HS‐SPME) (Zierler and others 2004), coupled with separation and detection methods, such as high‐performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) (Bahçeci and Acar 2007b), gas chromatography with flame‐ionization detection (GC‐FID) (Bieniek 2003), gas chromatography‐olfactometry (GC‐O) (Gocmen and others 2005), and the most often used, gas chromatography‐mass spectrometry (GC‐MS) (Zierler and others 2004; Gocmen and others 2005; Zhang and others 2013). Copyright © Transparency Market Research. Bahçeci and others (2003) studied 2 technologies applied in today's clear apple juice industrial production: the process of ultrafiltration and the conventional process (using bentonite and gelatin for clarification), and found that there was almost no difference in the results (A. acidoterrestris spore counts) after an intermediate step (hot or cold depectinization) between the 2 technologies, and the results after the final step (pasteurization for the conventional process and permeation for ultrafiltration) showed some difference (about 1 log reduction for the latter, no matter if 20 or 50 kDa) at the higher inoculum level (1.0×106 CFU/mL), although in the finished product (which was supposed to be sterile), spores were still detected, which may result from some spores penetrating through the ultrafiltration membranes.
Ruiz and others (2013) tested crude extracts from the leaves of 6 species in the genus Piper and 6 types of fractions from the chloroform extract of Piper aduncum and found that some of them were very useful to inhibit the growth of A. acidoterrestris, especially a purified compound: prenylated chromene with a MIC value of 7.81 μg/mL in Bacillus acidoterrestris medium (BAT). The reason might be the contents of active compounds in the extracts were too low.
lactis, shows a broad range of antimicrobial activity against Gram‐positive bacteria, and its effect on Alicyclobacillus has been well studied (Komitopoulou and others 1999; Yamazaki and others 2000; Peña and Massaguer 2006; Peña and others 2009; Walker and Phillips 2008b). Vieira and others (2002) studied some kinetic parameters of the thermal processing applied to a tropical fruit nectar and found that the spores at 8 mo of frozen storage were easier to kill than those at 4 mo and just after rehydration (D95°C were about 3.8, 6.0, and 5.3, respectively), which was interpreted by the authors as different aging degrees under frozen storage. They explained these results as the additional killing effect caused by the electric current of the treatment of ohmic heating, compared with the treatment of conventional heating, which shared the common thermal killing effect with the treatment of ohmic heating. As far as the stability of the three isoforms is concerning, the resistance at 50 and 60 °C and the stability at various pH values have been determined. The study equips businesses and anyone interested in the market to frame broad strategic frameworks.
But when HHP was conducted at moderate temperature (such as 60 °C) or was followed by a moderate heating, the result turned to the killing of the spores (see details in Table 4). pH (3 to 5.8), temperature (20 to 54 °C), soluble solids concentration (11 to 19 °Brix), and nisin concentration (0 to 70 IU/mL), detection: K agar. The data show that the initial rates of the biocatalyst are essentially the same as that of the free enzyme, which clearly shows that the bound enzyme is fully active. Alicyclobacillus spp. Similar results were obtained in studies with HHP (or combined with mild heating) discussed above (Alpas and others 2003; Buzrul and others 2005; Vercammen and others 2011; Silva and others 2012; Sokołowska and others 2013). Besides, sucrose laurate addition had no obvious influence on the odor or appearance of the tested tomato juice or apple juice (only foaming when mixing); therefore, the authors believed that this combination might be a promising method for the food industry. At the end of the tests: time test: >80% mortality; power test: >80% mortality; pH test: similar results, mortality→100% (>70 °C); voltage test: max mortality for 150 V was about 94% (>70 °C), others: mortality→100% (>70 °C); time test: for all time points tested, the result of 60 °C was about 95%, others: about 100%; volume test: >70 °C: 2.5 cm: 65%, 5.0 cm: 95%, 10.0 cm: 100%. Power: 10 kW; survival test: voltage gradient: 30, 40, and 50 V/cm; temperature: 70, 80, and 90 °C; time: 0 to 30 min; spore concentration: 10. This study also suggested that removal of the hydroxy groups or inclusion of an extra methoxy group on curcumin resulted in a slight decrease in its antiproliferative activity. On the basis of end-user industries, guaiacol market can be classified as chemicals, agriclulture, pharmaceutical, cosmetics and food & beverages. The authors also inferred that HPH did not result in any sublethal injury according to the storage test. Therefore, they proposed a new species, Bacillus acidocaldarius. Recently, as many chemical and physical inhibitory methods against Alicyclobacillus had been studied, some researchers began to study the combined effect of 2 or more inhibitory factors. Which are the key perspectives that the C-suite are leveraging to move businesses to new growth trajectory? Wang and others (2010a) studied the effects of UW and MW on killing A. acidoterrestris vegetable cells and found that the former (600 W, 20 to 24 kHz, 30 min) was more effective (2 to 3 log gap) than the latter (900 W, 2450 MHz, 30 min), and with the same treatment time, combined UW and MW was less than separate UW, but better than MW, and UW followed by MW (about 3 log reductions) was significantly better than the contrary (about 2 log reductions). The first isolating sources and some important physiological and biochemical characteristics of all species in the genus Alicyclobacillus are summarized in Table 1. The authors also indicated that high‐pressure technology is economically available for industrial use at reasonable cost today. Use the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. The postulated pathway of guaiacol production is during ferulic acid (a common compound in fruit juices) metabolism: 1) ferulic acid is decarboxylated to 4‐vinylguaiacol (Mathew and others 2007) or transformed to vanillic acid (Huang and others 1993) or vanillin (Peleg and others 1992); 2) 4‐vinylguaiacol is oxidized to vanillin (Karmakar and others 2000); 3) vanillin is oxidized to vanillic acid (Ander and others 1980); 4) vanillic acid is decarboxylated to guaiacol (Crawford and Olson 1978). Pei and others (2014) systemically studied the inhibitory effects of a newly discovered bacteriocin: bificin C6165, and found that 16 of 20 tested A. acidoterrestris strains were sensitive to it in diluted apple juice (DAJ), and the inhibitory effects also existed in commercial apple juice, orange juice, peach juice, and grape fruit juice for the strain DSM 3922T. It has now become a new threat to juice and beverage processors (Cerny and others 1984). HPH: 500 to 1700 bar, duration, 2 ms; detection: MEA; temperature: room temperature, <55 °C after 1700 bar treatment. Sokołowska and others (2012) found that oscillatory HHP was more effective than continuous HHP, and the combination of them was better than each alone. More and more research has been initiated to develop new technologies to control Alicyclobacillus, as well as to enhance the methods already in existence, and to study the characteristics and mechanism of their heat resistance and spoilage for the purpose of control. These reports and surveys have indicated that the problems caused by Alicyclobacillus were of widespread microbial spoilage concern for the juice and beverage industries. Sinigaglia and others (2003) studied the combined effects of pH, water activity, and temperature on the germination and growth of spores of A. acidoterrestris and established a response surface model. The insights will also help their customers overcome their fears. 4. t1/2 values, at different temperatures and pHs, of extra-cellular laccase POXA1b; extra-cellular laccase from PMSF-containing medium, POXA1b-P; and intracellular laccase, POXA1b-I. During spore‐to‐cell transition, there was one or several processes inhibited (Bevilacqua and others 2008a). Linalool (35% of the oil sample) had similar toxicity to the essential oil, while linalyl acetate (51% of the oil sample) was more toxic.
Drug intermediates obtained from guaiacol is used in the synthesis of expectorants such as guaifenesin & sulfoguaiacol. In 2005, the European Fruit Juice Association (AIJN) conducted a survey, in which 68 fruit processing industrial participants were investigated. Catalytic parameters of extra-cellular laccase POXA1b (A1b), extra-cellular laccase from PMSF-containing medium POXA1b-P (A1b-P) and intracellular laccase POXA1b-I (A1b-I) towards ABTS, syringaldazine (syr) and DMP as substrates.