The inner core is so deep within the earth that it's under immense pressure. It's Hot...Really Hot . Institute of Physics: What Causes the Earth's Magnetic Field. Earth's inner core is the innermost geologic layer of the Earth. It is believed to consist mostly of an iron–nickel alloy and to be about the same temperature as the surface of the Sun: about 5700 K (5400 °C). The average magnetic field in Earth's outer core is estimated to measure 25 Gauss (2.5 mT), 50 times stronger than the magnetic field at the surface. So much pressure that, even though it is so hot, it is solid. An earthquake makes vibrations which move through the inside of the Earth. The vibrations Lehmann studied seemed to be moving across something solid in the center of the planet. It is primarily a solid ball with a radius of about 1,220 kilometres (760 miles), which is about 20% of the Earth's radius or 70% of the Moon's radius. What does INNER CORE mean? This heat is caused by three elements: residual heat from the formation of the earth, gravitational forces from the moon and the sun, and and radioactive decay of earth's inner elements. The inner core makes up approximately 1.7% of earth's total mass, while the outer core makes up approximately 30.8% of the earth's total mass. Scientists continue to study the inner core, mostly through the use of seismic activity, as they try to learn more about it. The temperature of the inner core is estimated to be between 3,000 and 5,000 Kelvins (4,940 to 8,540 degrees Fahrenheit). The inner core was discovered by Inge Lehmann in 1929, using seismology. The inner core is the very center of the Earth, and the hottest part of the planet. They believe it formed approximately 500 million years ago due to a geological change. The inner core is more than 5,000 kilometers below the earth's surface. It makes up 19 percent of the Earth's total volume, which makes it just 30 percent smaller than the moon. We can't travel there, so most of what we know about the core is based on scientists' theories. But this is not the case. Meaning of INNER CORE. Alfè D; Gillan M. & Price G.D. 2002. He is an expert in solid-state physics, and during the day is a researcher at a Russell Group U.K. university. The Earth's outer core, which consists of molten iron and nickel, flows around the inner core, and this motion produces the magnetic field. See more. It is also not believed to be uniform, as the seismic waves passing through do so at different speeds. This page was last changed on 22 September 2020, at 23:58. Copyright 2020 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media, All Rights Reserved. It was once believed that the earth's inner core was liquid, but Inge Lehmann - a seismologist - proved in theory in 1936 that the inner core was solid, and the outer core was liquid. Some believe that the earth's inner core formed between 2 and 4 billion years ago. The inner core of the Earth has a number of surprising properties. Some scientists believe that the earth's inner core spins at a faster speed than the rest of it - at a rate of 2/3rds of a second faster. The scorching hot iron inner core is able to remain solid because of the extremely high pressures at the center of the Earth. The pressure in Earth's inner core is about 3,500,000 atmospheres. Experiments reported in July 1997 suggest that the inner core spins at a slightly faster speed than the Earth itself. Scientists believe that the earth's inner core is growing slowly. Definition of INNER CORE in the Definitions.net dictionary. Temperature: 475 K (∼200°C) at the surface to 1300 K (∼1000°C) Thickness: 25 miles (32 km) for continental crust and 3-5 miles (8 km) for oceanic crust. The inner core is believed to be made up of an iron-nickel (metal) alloy. Although the inner core is made up primarily of nickel and iron, it also includes elements that are capable of dissolving in iron such as cobalt, gold, and platinum. Because the Earth's inner core is a solid lump of iron, you may think that it is the source of the Earth's magnetic field. The high temperature comes from three main sources. There is residual heat left from the Earth's formation, and heat is generated by gravitational forces from the sun and moon as they tug and pull on the inner core. 10 people chose this as the best definition of inner-core: (planetology) The solid m... See the dictionary meaning, pronunciation, and sentence examples. Virion, an entire virus particle, consisting of an outer protein shell called a capsid and an inner core of nucleic acid (either ribonucleic or deoxyribonucleic acid—RNA or DNA).The core confers infectivity, and the capsid provides specificity to the virus. Theories on the formation of Earth suggest that the inner core is composed of iron and nickel heated up to a temperature of around 9,800 degrees F. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, p13/14. The Earth's inner core is surprisingly large, measuring 2,440 km (1,516 miles) across. These elements are called siderophiles. The inner core is the very center of the Earth, and the hottest part of the planet.It is a mainly a solid ball with a radius of about 1,220 km (760 mi), according to seismological studies. Instead it is created by the earth's outer core, made of molten iron and nickel. All the Earth’s Layers, Their Structure and Composition. The solid inner core is too hot to hold a permanent magnetic field (see Curie temperature) but probably acts to stabilize the magnetic field generated by the liquid outer core. The inner core of the Earth has a number of surprising properties. This inner core is able to remain solid because the center of the earth exists in extremely high pressures.  Iron can only be solid at such high temperatures because its melting temperature increases dramatically at such pressures.. Composition and temperature of the Earth’s core constrained by combining ab initio calculations and seismic data. Inner Core. The inner core is the dense center of Earth. Last edited on 22 September 2020, at 23:58, "Iron melting curve with a tricritical point", https://simple.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Earth%27s_inner_core&oldid=7119286, Creative Commons Attribution/Share-Alike License. Earth's innermost section is called its inner core, and is believed to be just as hot as the sun's surface. Inner Core The Earth's inner core is made up of iron and nickel, just like the outer core, however, the inner core is different. Below the crust, there are four distinct layers and these are called the upper mantle, lower mantle, outer core and inner core. The magnetic field is created when the outer core flows around the inner core. Georgia State University: Structure of the Earth, Universe Today: Why is the Center of the Earth Hot, Columbia University: Core Spins Faster Than Earth, Lamont Scientists Find. Lehman was studying a large New Zealand earthquake. Finally, the radioactive decay of elements deep within the Earth also produces heat. Some scientists believe that the earth's inner core actually has another inner-inner core. It makes up 19 percent of the Earth's total volume, which makes it just 30 percent smaller than the moon. It is a solid located 3,160–3,954 miles (5,100 to 6,400 km) deep in earth's surface. It is a mainly a solid ball with a radius of about 1,220 km (760 mi), according to seismological studies. Samuel Markings has been writing for scientific publications for more than 10 years, and has published articles in journals such as "Nature." The Inner Core (in the picture to the left, the inner core is the layer labeled #1) The inner core is the center layer of the Earth. Scientists believe that the Earth's inner core is a solid and is mainly composed of iron. The research conducted at Columbia University suggests that the inner core rotates in the same direction as the rest of the planet. Inner core - The center of the earth, which is composed of nickel and iron. The nickel alloy that makes up the earth's inner core is referred to as NiFe. The earth, from the center moving outward, is made up of the inner core, the outer core, the lower mantle, the upper mantle, and the crust. Interesting Inner Core Facts: The temperature of the inner core is believed to be approximately 5400 degrees Celsius, or 5700 Kelvin. This theory also states that it was entirely molten originally, and was not present when the earth originally formed 4.5 billion years ago. It's Almost The Size of the Moon. She called this the inner core. In addition to seismic activity, scientists use a variety of other information to learn about the earth's inner core. 1. The earth's inner core is approximately 1500 miles wide. Lide D.R. Information and translations of INNER CORE in the most comprehensive dictionary definitions resource on the web. This heat is caused by three elements: residual heat from the formation of the earth, gravitational forces from the moon and the sun, and and radioactive decay of earth's inner … It is estimated to be approximately 1,802 miles below the earth's surface (crust). The top layer, known as the crust, is the thinnest layer of the Earth with a thickness of 30 km (18.6 miles). These additional methods involve lab experiments, meteorite analysis, computer modeling, and reading of data. Crust. She wrote about it for many years, but it was not proved to exist until 1970. It is a hot sphere made completely of solid iron and nickel. The planet Earth consists of a series of distinct layers, each of which has a unique structure. The inner core is located at the very center of the Earth.  It is believed to consist mostly of an iron–nickel alloy and to be about the same temperature as the surface of the Sun: about 5700 K (5400 °C)..