It is further extended by the Xochimilco Light Rail and the lines A and B. Important landmarks of Greater Mexico City include the Historic Center of Mexico City, the floating gardens of Xochimilco, the Pre-Hispanic city ruins Teotihuacan, located at the municipality of the same name, all three declared World Heritage sites by UNESCO in 1987. As of 2018, an estimated 21,581,000 persons live in this metropolitan area,[2] of which 8,841,916 live in Mexico City proper. In addition, some inner city suburbs are losing population to outer city suburbs, indicating continual expansion of Greater Mexico City. Local residents, however, opposed the project, and the government decided to build a second terminal on the restricted area of the current airport, and decentralize flights to the nearby metropolitan areas of Toluca, Puebla, Pachuca and Cuernavaca, which, along with Greater Mexico City, form the Mexico City megalopolis (known in Spanish as the corona regional or a ciudad-región).[15]. UN figures for each cities are varied between city proper, metropolitan area, and urban agglomeration. The Mexico City Metropolitan Area fully covers 5 regions (regiones naturales) in Mexico State, partly covers another 5 regions, the Federal District, and 1 municipality in Hidalgo. But is it really prepared? The valley of Mexico is surrounded by mountains on all four sides creating a basin with only one small opening at the north, trapping all exhaust emissions of the city. In many countries, metropolitan areas are established either with an official organisation or only for statistical purposes. If the IMECA values reach a critical level, an environmental contingency is declared whereby Hoy No Circula is extended to two days per week, industrial activities are reduced, certain gas power plants shut down, and elementary school entry hours are changed. However, metropolitan areas in the central states extend over many municipalities. Together these 10 intrastate regions cover every single municipality within the Valley of Mexico Metropolitan Area except for the 1 municipality in Hidalgo State. The basin of the valley of Mexico was thus integrated artificially to the Moctezuma river basin which connects to the Pánuco River. A few metropolitan areas extend beyond the limits of one state: Greater Mexico City (Federal District, Mexico and Hidalgo), Puebla-Tlaxcala (Puebla and Tlaxcala but excluding the city of Tlaxcala), Comarca Lagunera (Coahuila and Durango), and Tampico (Tamaulipas and Veracruz). [3] The distribution of the population in Mexico, especially, in urban areas, has been changed significantly by the economic interaction between settlements in its north and the United States. The increasing population concentration in the north of Mexico is strongly associated with the development of the maquila industri… a city with a population of at least 250,000 that forms a conurbation with other cities in the United States. Each municipality is autonomous to administer its local affairs, regulated by the government of the states they belong to. ", "Update of Statistical Area Definitions and Guidance on Their Uses",,, "Demographia World Urban Areas, 15th Annual Edition",, "Japan: Prefectures and Major Cities - Population Statistics, Maps, Charts, Weather and Web Information", "Table 2.10 Population of Three Major Metropolitan Areas", Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, "Delhi could be the world's most populous city by 2028. Because of a clause in the Mexican Constitution, however, since it is the seat of the powers of the federation, it can never become a state, or the capital of the country has to be relocated. According to Demographia, an urban area is a continuously built up land mass of urban development that is within a labor market (metropolitan area or metropolitan region) and contains no rural land. The National Population Council (CONAPO). [13], For urban/metropolitan areas that have more than one. Mexico City was built on the island of Tenochtitlan in the middle of the lake. The most important public transportation is the metro, one of the largest in the world with 226 km and 195 stations, that services Mexico City proper, with some service in Ciudad Nezahualcoyotl and Ecatepec. Even though some of these municipalities have some of the wealthier neighborhoods of the city, they often contrast with peripheric low income suburbs known as zonas marginales or ciudades perdidas. One of them is Hoy No Circula (known in English as "One Day without a Car"), whereby some vehicles with certain ending numbers on their license plates are not allowed to circulate on certain days in an attempt to cut down on pollution and traffic congestion. Figures taken from official census when possible, Figures taken from official census when possible, The continuous urbanization of Manila extends outward its, Although commonly referred to as a city, Lagos is a metropolitan area consisting of 16. "(2013)", "Los Angeles - Long Beach - Anaheim (Metropolitan Statistical Area, Metropolitan Areas, USA) - Population Statistics, Charts, Map and Location", "Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation. In 1996, the Programa General de Desarollo Urbano del Distrito Federal first proposed this concept to refer to the Mexico City megalopolis, or "megalopolis of central Mexico", which was later expanded by PROAIRE, a metropolitan commission on the environment.[7]. [1], In 2004, a joint effort between CONAPO, INEGI and the Ministry of Social Development (SEDESOL) agreed to define metropolitan areas to be any of the following:[1]. For instance, on Fridays, vehicles with plates ending in 9 or 0 may not drive. In addition to the city proper, a metropolitan area includes both the surrounding territory with urban levels of residential density and some additional lower-density areas that are adjacent to and linked to the city (e.g., through frequent transport, road linkages or commuting facilities). A city can be defined as a conditionally contiguous urban area, without regard to territorial or other boundaries inside an urban area. There are several environmental programs in operation in all municipalities of Greater Mexico City. [6] The National Population Council (CONAPO) recognizes the existence of such metropolitan areas and defines them as the municipalities with a city of at least 200,000 inhabitants and sharing processes of conurbation with cities of the US:[1], A megalopolis is defined as a long chain of continuous metropolitan areas, or territories that are relatively integrated amongst each other, a clear example being the Northeast Megalopolis in the United States. [10] Similar agencies exist in Indonesia such as Jabodetabekjur Development Cooperation Agency for Jakarta metropolitan area.[11]. It is surrounded by thin strips of highlands which separate it from other adjacent metropolitan areas, of which the biggest are Puebla, Toluca, and Cuernavaca-Cuautla, and together with which it makes up the Mexico City megalopolis. The metropolitan area, however, is much larger with a population of 21.2 million people, making Mexico City the most populous metropolitan area in the Western Hemisphere. [9] In the Philippines, metropolitan areas have an official agency, such as Metropolitan Manila Development Authority (MMDA) which manages Manila metropolitan area. Northwestern and southeastern states are divided into a small number of large municipalities, but central states are divided into a large number of smaller municipalities. Bus and trolleybus transportation is provided by multiple agencies. Since then, and through a policy of decentralization in order to reduce the environmental pollutants of the growing conurbation, the annual rate of growth of the agglomeration has decreased, and it is lower than that of the other four largest metropolitan areas (namely Greater Guadalajara, Greater Monterrey, Greater Puebla and Greater Toluca) even though it is still positive. (59 municipalities): Greater Mexico City spreads over the valley of Mexico, also called the valley of Anáhuac, a 9,560 km2 (3,691 sq mi) valley that lies at an average of 2,240 m (7,349 ft) above sea level. The Federal Government (represented by the Department of Social Development), the government of Mexico City, and the government of the State of Mexico agreed on the official definitions for both the Mexico City Metropolitan Area and the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico on December 22, 2005. The total mid-2019 population of Mexico is projected to be 126.6 million (i.e. By contrast, the Metropolitan Area of the Valley of Mexico is considered a normative definition, in that it incorporates 18 additional strategic municipalities in the territorial administration of the region, even if they have not been fully integrated yet. Metropolitan Manila Development Authority, List of largest cities throughout history, List of towns and cities with 100,000 or more inhabitants, "World Urbanization Prospects: The 2007 Revision Population Database", "United Nations Statistics Division – Demographic and Social Statistics", "The world's biggest cities: How do you measure them? In 2013 the Supervía Poniente opened, a toll road linking the new Santa Fe business district with southwestern Mexico City. Bus rapid transit (BRT) services operate: since 2005 Metrobús in Mexico City and since 2010 Mexibús in the State of Mexico. It is now in transition to become the country's 32nd federal entity, officially "Mexico City" (Ciudad de México, commonly abbreviated as CDMX), giving it a level of autonomy comparable to that of a state. It is the most frequently crossed international border in the world, with about 250 million legal crossings every year. 2016 Census", Population on 1 January by broad age group, sex and metropolitan regions, "Washington - Arlington - Alexandria (Metropolitan Statistical Area, Metropolitan Areas, USA) - Population Statistics, Charts, Map and Location", UNSD Demographics Statistics – City population by sex, city and city type, Nordpil World Database of Large Urban Areas, 1950–2050,, Lists of cities (worldwide) by population, Articles with dead external links from December 2017, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 3 November 2020, at 05:30. The largest city by population using the metropolitan area definition, which is a loose term referring to urban area and its primary commuter areas, is Tokyo, Japan. Municipalities with a Medium HDI were Ozumba (.7983 61st), Temascalapa (.7982 62nd), Otumba (.7932 66th), Jilotzingo (.7908 68th), Juchitepec (.7874 72nd), Isidro Fabela (.7791 78th), Axapusco (.7768 80th), Hueypoxtla(.7666 82nd), Nopaltepec (.7661 83rd), Atlautla (.7624 86th), Ecatzingo (.7291 99th) and Villa del Carbón (.7172 104th). [11] The net migration rate of Mexico City proper from 1995 to 2000, however, was negative,[12] which implies that residents are moving to the suburbs of the metropolitan area, or to other states of Mexico. The last remnants of the system of lakes are found in the boroughs of Xochimilco and Tláhuac, and in the municipality of Atenco. A city can be defined by the inhabitants of its demographic population, as by metropolitan area, labour market area, or similar in a metropolitan area.