��ĸ��kk1��7��m��k��P'h�H����#�o��s],�C�������'�]d�i"�v�p�߾�E����=�R5��y�$k����8ty8�3i[2?����t��|�ϑ���&�j���tW���R���è���F�-e��[�(��D�+�w��l�������ѽV~l/�.�j�aX�Rdg�-R)p����}F�ȦC�]�ɝ\�q�����~�M�(�� There are 2289 poems available under Sangam Literature now; many of them are very short having only 3-5 verses. Only the works of the third Sangam survives. This age saw the composition of five great epics in Tamil: There are also five minor works authored by Jain writers. +JB���9���ϛɅ��&�}����ʺ������וu?��oS��noW?�| 102 of them are anonymous. endobj This is entire different from what has been mentioned in the Iraiyanar Akapporul and Sangam legend. 1 0 obj Broadly, we can divide the Sangam literature in 2 parts viz. The scientific analysis of the Sangam literature says that this work was composed in 120-150 years and most of the literature was composed from 100 AD to 250 AD. Composed by Chithalai Chathanar, also spelt Sattanar. The name literally means the tale of an anklet. The poems have also been classified on nature themes which are known as Thinai. Author Ilango Adikal is supposed to be an ascetic-prince and the younger brother of Cheran king Senguttuvan. The number of poets estimated is 473. The stage for the tale was three Tamil kingdoms – Chola, Pandya and Chera. 2 0 obj There are three books in Tolkāppiyam viz. This period is known as the Sangam Period. They printed and published different works such as Tholkappiyam, Nachinarkiniyar urai, Tholkappiyam Senavariyar urai, Manimekalai, Cilappatikaram, Pattupattu, and Purananuru in different parts of the 19th century, all with commentaries. Books on Sangam Literature _ Sangam Tamil Literature.pdf - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online for free. The topics of Puram are related to human experiences and emotions such as Heroism, Valor, Ethics and Philanthropy. Patinenmēlkanakku and Patinenkīlkanakku. �dв}MZ8H��ԩW"�O�`�W��5N�5��X�xb�o�e�p��΋~��s� SC��;������/����W��� K�F#/���z��Z��?j�&;�&w�&� ~��a�]Y�~��J�+ۦ�/Y��������殺�S)�)4�]�)��Ƣ�.$[��'�i0�O;4�\�������-���B4 r�s�j7%�n��t�=No[J��\�RU�D+:��(X_��=G �9ӓ�&o��,(6sғ}�pP5g�ZzV�ѵV%)s�Y}x9�:�IA>�� c 0�ИC��o9�3�_J:ߌl�)���k[���Up-��� #v#�v��"{��9X�D���{��!�js�88H`˜!��k�)z1嚢�:�훖�r��i?y����;HUcB��ͪ���!�4�B3�I���U�W�7��F��˵����z�0��|B��Qˑ�[��:3H�J�b�oi,�C��^ѥM��z�� k�w�H�P��Z��g=*R��(�XU�/���XF�X�gh7DRr~e�)|��rO�s�O�,�d�缁�� �ꚲ7�C���CO[�լ��ex��JgK�ȍm�I1���(��NR���R�:��χ�T�)��H�ZT�X�+|�9%�]NtE{[��N2�s�� F=Op���s. 4 0 obj Sangam writings are possibly unique in early Indian literature, which is almost entirely religious.The poems are concerned with two main topics: those of the first five collections are on love (akam), and those of the next two are on heroism (puram), including the praise of kings and their deeds.Paripatal, the eighth collection, contains poems of both types. The topics of Agam are related to personal and human aspects such as love and sexual things. For UPSC 2020 preparation, follow BYJU'S. Download Sangam Literature notes PDF. Other important works are Palamoli (by Munrurai Araiyar) and Acharakkovai (contains a description of the daily life of an orthodox Hindu, shows the influence of the Sanskrit Shastras). A chief character is Kannagi, who seeks revenge on the Pandya kingdom for her husband who was wrongly put to death. So most works of Ettukottai are of Agam style. This period lasted from 200 to 600 CE. Chief works include Thirukkural, Palamoli, Naladiyar, etc. Under whose patronage did the Sangam flourish? Your email address will not be published. This classification has been further summarized as follows: This is the collection of the Sangam Period works. Seyon or Murugan is told to be the chief deity. Some important points of some of these works is as follows: The Tamil language and literature did not flourish in isolation and was influenced by Sanskrit. %���� This work has divided the Tamil Language into two types’ viz. Sanskrit influence on this work is peripheral and very little. There are important facts stated in Tamil Nadu state board books of class 11th & 12th which aspirants sometimes miss. The Tamil Scholars S V Damodaram Pillai and U V Swamitha Iyer brought it into light. Out of them, the Patinenmēlkanakku refers to the oldest surviving Tamil Poetry of the Sangam Age, dating back to 200 BC to 100 BC while the Patinenkīlkanakku refers to the collection of 18 poetic works, which belongs to Post Sangam period, and date back to 100 AD to 500 AD. Required fields are marked *. Yes, the Sangam literature talks about the Mauryan invasion of the far south. The first consciously ‘national’ work of Tamil literature. <> <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 612 792] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> The third Sangam saw the Patinenkilkanakku. Patinenkīlkanakku is the post Sangam work that is of Agam as well as Puram context. This is . Abstract discussion on human aspects such as love, sexual relations, etc. On the basis of interpretation and context, the Sangam literature can be described into two types viz. puram of Sangam literary tradition. Offers information on social life, human psychology, political and economic conditions during the Sangam Age. Rishi Agastya wrote it. These works, which are called “The Eight Anthologies”, are on deferent themes such as Narrinai on love, Kuruntokai on love, Aiankurunuru on erotic love etc. Here, it implies an association of Tamil poets that flourished in ancient southern India. The scientific analysis of the Sangam literature says that this work was composed in 120-150 years and most of the literature was composed from 100 AD to 250 AD. Most works of Pattuppāttu are of Puram context and they have works on seasons and picturesque nature of Tamil Country. It discusses epics, love, and polity and governance. In total, there are about 2300 poems that are attributable to 473 poets. The word ‘Sangam’ literally means association. To complement your preparation for the upcoming exam, check the following links: There were mainly three Sangams called Muchchangam. endobj Does Sangam Literature have any mention of Mauryas? Read the table below to get those facts: There are a few topics important from ancient Indian history perspective, which are linked in the table below: Your email address will not be published. x��X[o�:~/���GhT]�P�ݤ�m�=h\��z����%A�����w.�.q��Er87�|3����˗�?�7_-��Қ}�[�����=�s�4��?x���mk�_k�����u�cnY�@�a��� Works composed between 200 BCE to 100 BCE, Mostly composed before the age of the Pallavas. They are based upon the themes of the nature. Sangam literature is the name given to the earliest available Tamil literature. The author’s aim was to propagate Buddhism in South India as the work espouses the values of Buddhism over other religions of the time. The most important among them is the Thirukkural, also simply called the Kural. Sangam Literature – UPSC Ancient Indian History Notes (Art & Culture):-  Download PDF Here. In which Sangam work, is there a mention of the enormous wealth of Nandas? The three chief Tamil kingdoms of Sangam Period - the Cheras, the Cholas and the Pandyas embraced Sangam Literature. Which is the earliest of Tamil literature? 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