A wide pencil of light passing through the object ‘resolves’ the points in the object into widely spaced points on the lens, so that the lens can produce these points as distinct and separate on the image. Thus, loss of some light rays reduces numerical aperture and decreases the resolving power. A compound microscope can be categorized into an upright microscope and an inverted microscope.

The numerical aperture of an objective is its light gathering capacity, which depends on the site of the angle 8 and the refractive index of the medium existing between the object and the objective. On the other hand, if the numerical aperture of condenser is greater than that of the objective, the back lens may receive too much light resulting in a decrease in contrast. It is an extension of the Usually three objectives with different magnifying powers are screwed to the revolving nosepiece. There are three types of condensers as follows: (a) Abbe condenser (Numerical aperture=1.25): It is extensively used.

The total magnification obtained in a compound microscope is the product of objective magnification and ocular magnification. Depending upon the required magnification, one of the two eyepieces is inserted into the draw tube before viewing.

The diagram shows the construction of an objective lens. The most commonly used microscope for general purposes is the standard compound microscope. Usually an eyepiece involves two or more lenses build up the piece. This means that the rays entering the eye from any one point on the object Most of the compound microscopes have three objective lenses that you can switch around, each with different maginifying power. It holds the stage, body tube, fine adjustment and coarse adjustment.

of the microscope and see how light travels into the system. The body can be bent at this joint into any inclined position, as desired by the observer, for easier observation. ��N)*WG/�W/g ���8�A�����[A�kZf�^)��l�+����2��4a�@�C�z���R��o_���xS� �P��T�V������^W�K��J��h����FD���F����1&���#���G�E�[Ž It has a hole at the center, upon which the object to be viewed is placed on a slide. On the other hand, a narrow pencil of light cannot ‘resolve’ the points in the object into widely spaced points on the lens, so that the lens produces a blurred image.
This kind of lens will have a lot of aberrations that one can not see the image clearly.

It is the magnification that makes visible the smallest resolvable particle.

Therefore, it needs bending of more rays into the aperture, so that the object can be distinctly resolved. These parts are involved in passing the light through the object and magnifying its size. The objectives have different magnifying powers. The slide containing the object is clipped to it and moved on the stage in two dimensions by rotating the knobs, so as to focus the required portion of the object. Therefore, let's look at the most important components of the microscopic lens system, which are the Eyepiece and the Objective Lenses,

two lenses eyepiece. The parts of a compound microscope are of two categories as given below: These are the parts, which support the optical parts and help in their adjustment for focusing the object (Figures 4.5 and 4.6). Simple Microscope: Compound Microscope: 1. It is usually a vertical tube holding the eyepiece at the top and the revolving nosepiece with the objectives at the bottom. It Thus, more light rays enter into the objective and greater resolution is obtained. •Leeuwenhoek is incorrectly called "the inventor of the microscope" •Created a “simple” microscope that could magnify to about 275x, and published drawings of microorganisms in 1683 •Could reach magnifications of over 200x with simple ground lenses - however compound

Various eyepiece designs are available, each with its advantages and disadvantages. The smaller is the wavelength of light (λ), the greater is its ability to resolve the points on the object into distinctly visible finer details in the image. It magnifies the size of the object by a complex system of lens arrangement. The convex surfaces of both the lenses face downward. The magnifying power of a simple lens is very limited.

(b) Variable focus condenser (Numerical aperture =1.25).

In this eyepiece, two simple Plano-convex lenses are fixed, one above and the other below the image plane of the real image formed by the objective.

Prohibited Content 3. It magnifies the magnified real image formed by the objective to a still greatly magnified virtual image to be seen by the eye (Figure 4.9). Read this article to learn about the working principle and parts of a compound microscope with diagrams!

Mechanical stage consists of two knobs with rack and pinion mechanism. The rays after passing through the eye lens come out through a small circular area known as Rams-den disc or eye point, where the image is viewed by the eye. Compound – uses a set of lenses or lens systems (this is the type of microscope we use in class, it has the. It is the upper part of the body tube, slightly narrower, into which the eyepiece is slipped during observation. The diagram shows a normal It is the ability of the objective to resolve each point on the minute object into widely spaced points, so that the points in the image can be seen as distinct and separate from one another, so as to get a clear un-blurred image. If the resolving power is high, points very close to each other can be seen as clear and distinct. n.a. It is used for fine adjustment to get the final clear image. Thus, an object of lq will appear as 1000 µ. It gives a magnification of hundred times, when immersion oil fills the space between the object and the objective. It has a series of lenses to converge on the object, light rays coming from the light source.

5. It is a relatively smaller knob. �LF]�,v�k[Hk j��p��p}�֓$�e'�㎦�r�,�~up�[��cQ4@��K��?��=с�+ki�\ �F�4���[L6�%�1go�M������!Q��$������&�d��آ���Q,Dw�Ө�c.���E%��R�Z�CZѣK'n�#��\��'��� VfC� 1צ&�M��s���5��ˋ~�]��J�R��Y�>����`#�*P������p�PΪa���#uV Ԑ4�r��C� �_�5�z�U�˸�[Q�w4n]�g!�SO�c΃�RH��8�#T�m�� -����7p�e��I2dP�_|h�*8y���V9�o��]�\��W6��W.���]�$}Á��3{��T���n��.��Ӯi����6rQ:i0�Ul�D/��=+c�G���׀K3)jc1)t It should be used in the following manner: Only plane side of the mirror should be used, as the condenser converges the light rays. It is a rotatable disc at the bottom of the body tube with three or four objectives screwed to it. AN INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPOUND MICROSCOPE OBJECTIVE: In this lab you will learn the basic skills needed to stain and mount wet slides. H��W�n�6����. The Compound Microscope PPT.

In modern microscopes, fine adjustment is done by moving the stage up and down by the fine adjustment. They are the Huygenian, the hyper plane and the compensating. Therefore, we used = 0.55/2 X 1.30 = 0.21 µ.

The objective is the most important component of the optical system in terms of the quality of the final image. The eyepiece is a drum, which fits loosely into the draw tube. However, when this space is filled with an immersion oil, which has greater refractive index (n=1.56) than that of air (n=1.00), light rays are refracted or bent more towards the objective. Heinrich Weisskopf Starting with use of a simple lens in ancient times, to the first compound microscope around 1590, and up to the microscopes you are using in 7th grade life science, the microscope has allowed scientists to make discoveries about the “invisible world.” Therefore, the smallest details that can be seen by a typical light microscope is having the dimension of approximately 0.2 µ. The lens towards the objective is called ‘field lens’ and that towards eye, ‘eye lens’. That means, each point in the object cannot be found as widely spaced distinct and separate point on the image. Here, the lens gathers more light. In our course, we are mainly learning how the light travels through a lens system.

n = Refractive index of the medium between the object and the objective and. Always start with the Low Power objective. This image is again magnified by the ocular lens (eyepiece) to obtain a magnified ‘virtual image’ (final image), which can be seen by eye through the eyepiece. Eyepiece: The eyepiece is a drum, which fits loosely into the draw tube.
It is actually a convex lens of small focal length, which is used for seeing the magnified images of small objects. Thus, the greater is the width of the pencil of light entering into the objective (29), the higher is its ‘resolving power’.