ToughtCo. In addition, its warlike political structure was deeply connected with the religion . Mark Cartwright (2013). The Monument was surrounded by a structure known as the Coatepantli , or serpent wall, which is thought to have later influenced the architecture on the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan. No political decision, especially in military matters, was executed without having the gods on their side. But its most important attraction is a pyramid known as the Temple of Quetzalcoatl, the feathered serpent. Trade and agriculture were the top contributors in the Toltec economy. Who inhabited Mexico during the Viking Age? Although it is very unlikely that they were engaged in war, it is possible that Tula and Chichen Itza developed a powerful trading network, something that could explain some of the architectural similarities. More importantly, and as Tula stands evidence of, these ancient cultures were mighty warriors, and sacrifice to the gods was central in their society. Early Civilizations in the Americas Reference Library (2005). This was the case of Topilzin, who was considered both a warrior king and high priest of the cult to Quetzacoatl. Most of the Toltec information comes from the Aztecs Or Mexica, and post-colonial texts documenting oral traditions. The importance of warfare to the Toltec can be seen in the remnants of their massive monuments, including in the sculptures at Pyramid B. The city was also known to be rich while its skilled craftsmen and potters earned a lot of wealth for it. The Toltec Civilization, as ancestors to the mighty Aztecs, provided them with a rich heritage that allowed them to rule Mesoamerica before the coming of the Spanish. The culture of war was always part of Toltec society. The Toltec peoples were a widespread civilization that thrived between the years 900 and 1200 AD. A hierarchical structure was created that monopolized resources. Earn Transferable Credit & Get your Degree. flashcard set{{course.flashcardSetCoun > 1 ? The Aztecs considered them so skilled that they named their own jewelry makers and metal workers 'tolteca'. The ancient city bears evidence that its founders were great astronomers, but also mighty warriors. The entire layout of Tula, its pyramids, and worship of the feathered serpent had great influence in the development of the Aztec Empire, and numerous Aztec city-states looked upon Tula to develop their urban centers. Some of these include two large pyramids, a large palace building, two ball-courts and a colonnaded walkway surrounded by dense residential area. Once with power, the priests arose. Log in or sign up to add this lesson to a Custom Course. The Toltecs interacted with societies of the Mesoamerican that in turn influenced each other’s culture. 48 Lesser-Known Facts about Indus Valley Civilization, Edited by Marsha E. Ackermann, Michael J. Schroeder, Janice J. Terry, Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur, Mark F. Whitters, Encyclopedia of World History, Facts on File Inc., 2008, Gregory S. Aldrete, History of the Ancient World: A Global Perspective, The Great Courses, 2011, Susan Toby Evans and Joanne Pillsbury, Palaces of the Ancient New World, Dumbarton Oaks Research Library and Collection Washington, D.C, 2004. These columns once supported the roof of a temple that was built atop the pyramid. The Toltec were a warrior led society who had high regard for religious figures as they worked together to interpret the will of gods. Their warriors were the highest rank and were regarded the most highly. You may be interested The 10 Characteristics of the Toltec Major Culture . stream The middle class of Toltec society included the craftsmen and other skilled artists who not only made jewelry and friezes, but made pottery as well. Toltec Civilization. Present-day Mexico city was the heart of Mesoamerica. credit by exam that is accepted by over 1,500 colleges and universities. However, there are a lot of monuments still surviving. They are also a part of the imagery of some of the Toltec deities like their sun god Quetzalcoatl, who is always pictured with the quetzal feathers that bear his name. G;!��./6q�NY. The constant confrontations to conquer territory with the neighboring tribes and to obtain the resources, were molding their culture around the war. The Toltec were warriors and innovators of architecture and artistry. You can test out of the The Editors of Encyclopædia Britannica (2016). Toltec Culture. Were the Toltec here before the time of Buddha? One of the best examples of Toltec architecture is the site at Chichen Itza. Copyright © 2015-document.write(new Date().getFullYear()) All Rights Reserved. Toltec architecture was a blend of Toltec and Mayan cultures. Toltec Civilization. Although Tula is home to various awe-striking monuments, its central monument is a Step Pyramid, dubbed the Pyramid of Quetzalcoatl or the pyramid of the Morning Star. If you would like to learn more about the Toltecs, this lesson is for you. Your email address will not be published. In one of them, the political and social structure was integrated into one. The Toltec warriors are also depicted with a butterfly-shaped chest plate, and a backplate that was carved in the shape of a solar disk, a sign that suggests that the warriors highly regarded the sun, most likely because they saw it as a symbol of power and might. courses that prepare you to earn and career path that can help you find the school that's right for you. Also the warriors and builders of this society were known to be superb. The Political and social organization Of the Toltecs Was structured by classes, whose main step of power was the militaristic aristocracy along with religious leaders. One such culture was a people known as the Toltec, a Nahuatl speaking tribe native to Central Mexico. just create an account. x��ko�6�{�����C�E�.l��m�w=l������(�P�N%y��73|�TD[]4���p8�߼�������w�P�O�=����a�����Ҽ��zl�����-�~îo//�|�'������OQF2c���D��g ��s��ˋ�=үB�����[��n�yy��!J�G�Y�.�װ�=�b�Q�'QKD�8�r��"X��(-}����X=5k.a�F�>�����b�[��C���<=��bu_��[|��B��BF�ߌ�@e bͳ��O"��2X�b�B.�͓x9l These are made out of basalt, measuring four meters in height, and are depicted with a spear thrower, also known as an atlatl. 3 0 obj Joanna has taught high school social studies both online and in a traditional classroom since 2009, and has a doctorate in Educational Leadership. The society known as the Toltecs were basically a continuation of former fallen or conquered societies. study Your email address will not be published. Quiz & Worksheet - What is a Political Platform? The city of Tollan has evidence of the first example of the reclining stone warriors. <> The White Conquerors; A Tale of Toltec and Aztec(English, Hardback, Munroe Kirk). were of great importance during the ceremonies, Emerald Pyramids of a Long Lost City: An Amazing Reconstruction of Teotihuacan, Nsude Pyramids: The Long Lost Pyramids of Nigeria, The Nubian Pyramids: Sudan’s Long-Lost Ancient Pyramids, The Ancient city of Copan and its Overlapping Step Pyramids, Tenochtitlan: The Atlantis of the Ancient Aztec Empire, The Great Pyramid of Cholula: The Largest Pyramid and Manmade Monument on Earth, The Lost Pyramids of Brazil: The Worlds Oldest Pyramids, Caral: The Most Ancient City of the Americas and its Striking Ancient Pyramids. Toltec. They were ferocious warriors who were dominating territories and leaving settlements of which they demanded tribute regularly. Then were the craftsman; the masons, and artists, and jewelers, etc. One has the theory that the strict militarist class social organization, the unintegrated multiethnicity of the empire and the constant imposition of political commitments to the conquered tribes, was the slow cause of the fall of the Toltec civilization. Create your account, Already registered? Ancient History Encyclopedia. A view of the pyramid of Quetzalcoatl at the archaeological site of Tula. Little is known about the exact nature of their societies social makeup, but it is known that they were a more militaristic aristocracy. Consequently, the accounts of the Toltecs may have been adapted or exaggerated by the Aztecs in their quest to mythify their heritage, where legend, myth and evidence are intertwined. More Links. The artisans used obsidian (volcanic glass) which was mainly mined from Pochuca to create weapons which was the main item of export apart from textiles and ceramics. Creators. The archaeological site encompassing the ancient city is located in the modern-day city of Tula de Allende, in the southwest of the Mexican state of Hidalgo, northwest of Mexico City and Teotihuacan. The Toltec Empire was not a massive one; at its peak it was spread over an area of around 1,000 square kilometers. The structure of Toltec society was pyramidal; Quite similar to European medieval organizations. According to legends, the city of Tollan was abandoned because of a civil war; however, other possibilities include agricultural and commercial problems, and overcrowding due to continued immigration. The middle class was made up of artisans, sculptors, traders, astronomers and artists., Mixtecas were discoverers. The exact reason for the decline of the Toltec is not known but they ruled a substantial portion of the Basin of Mexico until the mid of 1100 BCE when they abandoned their capital city. Bibliography Who were the Toltecs? If you continue to use this site, you agree with it. The artisans used obsidian (volcanic glass) which was mainly mined from Pochuca to create weapons which was the main item of export apart from textiles and ceramics. Its temples, plazas, and buildings are decorated with clear motifs of war and sacrifice. The culture was found in Mesoamerica in what is called Pre-Columbian times. To unlock this lesson you must be a Member. Although not literally, they are evidence of times when great empires walked the surface of Northern and Central America. The people of Toltecs in general are also well known as skilled agriculturists that produced a large amount of maize and naturally coloured cottons. Sinon, précisez votre dénomination sociale, suivie de la structure juridique (en toutes lettres ou en initiales) et du capital social. His credibility and power were given by his military campaigns and conquests, which turned the war into a cultural feature of his society. Quetzal feathers were large colorful feathers worn by the Toltec and the Aztecs, a tribute to the importance of multicolored feathers. The central plaza at Tula is so massive that it accommodated as many as 100,000 people. The city of Tollan finds its mention in the mythology of Aztec and was well known for its splendid palaces and buildings supposedly made from gold, jade, turquoise etc. They were joined in the upper class by the holy men of the Toltec who may have also been warriors as well. Log in here for access. Some kings also proclaimed themselves high priests seeking to cover both functions before their people. Much of what is known about the Toltecs is based on what has been learned about the Aztecs, another Mesoamerican culture that postdated the Toltecs and admired the Toltecs as predecessors. The Toltec culture (/ ˈ t ɒ l t ɛ k /) is a pre-Colombian Mesoamerican culture that ruled a state centered in Tula, Hidalgo, Mexico in the early post-classic period of Mesoamerican chronology (ca.