The power to “tax for the general welfare” is the constitutional basis for the federal government’s development of most of its public health programs and agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (part of the Department of Health and Human Services) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA, part of the Department of Labor); for research programs, such as those of the National Institutes of Health (NIH); and for the payment for medical care, such as Medicare and Medicaid (see Chapter 29). This work is achieved by promoting healthy lifestyles, researching disease and injury prevention, and detecting, preventing and responding to infectious diseases. The authorization is a political fiction for which members of Congress can claim political gain. THE THREE CORE PUBLIC HEALTH FUNCTIONS And the Essential Public Health Services Assessment Monitor health status to identify community health problems Diagnose and investigate health problems and health hazards in the community Evaluate effectiveness, accessibility, and quality of personal and population-based health services Policy Development Enforce laws and regulations that protect health and ensure safety. The Administration on Aging provides advice to the Secretary of the DHHS on issues and policies regarding elderly persons. Overall, public health is concerned with protecting the health of entire populations. The mission of public health is to "fulfill society's interest in assuring conditions in which people can be healthy." (In contrast, the state or local government is responsible for inspecting restaurants and food stores.) First, the Interstate Commerce Clause gives the federal government the right “to regulate Commerce with foreign Nations, and among the several States, and with the Indian Tribes.” The PHS is not the only important agency in public health. The social, cultural, and global contexts of the nation’s health are also undergoing rapid and dramatic change. Public health systems in other countries are likely structured very differently but still need to adapt to the same challenges. CMS also supports graduate medical education, residency, and fellowship programs that provide care for individuals covered by Medicare or Medicaid. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) organizational chart. Public health is the science of protecting and improving the health of people and their communities. Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. 25-3). The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) provides leadership and direction to programs designed to protect workers and the public from exposure to and adverse health effects of hazardous substances that are kept in storage sites or are released by fire, explosion, or accident. This authority derives from the 10th Amendment to the Constitution: “The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”, In 1988 the IOM stated that “the mission of public health is to ensure conditions in which people can be healthy”, and that the three “core functions of public health agencies at all levels of government are assessment, policy development, and assurance.”3, 1.