The outer circles of the eyes are drilled using tubular tools, while the inner circles are incised. He is currently a consultant for the Jade Specialty Committee of the Chinese Society of Cultural Relics, and a Vice-Chairman of the Chinese Jade Culture Research Association of Zhejiang Province. During Neolithic times, the known sources of nephrite jade in China for utilitarian and ceremonial items were the now-depleted deposits in the Ningshao area in the Yangtze River Delta (during the Liangzhu culture, 3400–2250 BCE) and in an area of the Liaoning province in Inner Mongolia (during the Hongshan culture, 4700–2200 BCE). Ceramics began in China during the New Stone Age in the period of the Yangshao and Longshan cultures . 12 in Yuhang County, Zhejiang Province”, Dongnan Wenhua (Southeastern Culture), May 1988.4 Fuquanshan Archaeological Team, “Excavation of Wujiachang Cemetery at the Fuquanshan Site in Shanghai”, Zhongguo Wen Wu Bao (China Cultural Relics), October 21, 2011.5 Shanghai Cultural Relics Management Committee, “Fuquanshan”, Wen Wu Chubanshe (Cultural Relics Press), October 2000, first edition.6 Zhejiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, “Fanshan”, Wen Wu Chubanshe (Cultural Relics Press), 2005, first edition.Wang MingdaWang Mingda was born in Suzhou in 1943 and graduated from the Department of History with a concentration in archaeology from Peking University in 1966. The bi is a circular disk with a hole, originally plain but increasingly decorated over time, and the cong is a vessel that’s square on the outside but circular on the inside. Among the many types of jades of the Liangzhu Culture, the jade cong are the most distinctive.Liangzhu jade cong have a square outer section and a circular inner hollow. 5). The Liangzhu culture was the last Neolithic jade culture in the Yangtze River Delta of China. "Perhaps they once wore cong like people wear Christian crosses or Buddhist beads today," he adds. 6). However, it lacks the finely incised cloud-scrolls between the two projected bars and on the eyelids of the animal masks. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); Painted pottery emerged during the Neolithic period of the Yangshao and Longshan cultures. The inner section of the walls has been carefully polished and slightly convex. He has since devoted his career to pre-historic archaeology, having served as the team leader of many major archaeological excavations, most notably those of Liangzhu Culture at Fanshan, Yaoshan (collaboration), Huiguanshan, Mojiaoshan, and Tangshan, as well as excavations in the Jiaxing, Huzhou, Zhoushan, and Shaoxing areas. Drilled from both ends, the large central aperture is enclosed by relatively thin walls. The invention of pottery and ceramics marked the advent of the New Stone Age in China around 6,000 years ago. The humanoid-deity mask incised on the third tier is identical to that on the first tier. Yaoshan M12:7)3 (fig. 3 Shen Dexiang of Yuhang County Cultural Management Association: “Archaeological Briefing of Anxi Yaoshan Tomb No. However, the present jade cong bears exquisite cloud-scrolls on the eyelids of the animal masks, and only the Yuhang Yaoshan M12:7 jade cong has achieved such a level of craftsmanship. However, the present jade cong bears exquisite cloud-scrolls on the eyelids of the animal masks, and only the Yuhang Yaoshan M12:7 jade cong has achieved such a level of craftsmanship. 2). Yu-Fan M12:97)6 (fig.

A three-tiered cong like the present example comprising one humanoid-deity and animal combined mask with an additional humanoid-deity mask are remarkably rare. All the five three-tiered examples hereto mentioned are squat with the height smaller than the outer diametre of the mouth, and have highly similar incised decorations. The exterior is divided into three registers by horizontal gouges, each register is incised with a mask motif to each of the four corners. Unlike the later Longshan culture, the Yangshao culture did not use pottery wheels. "That way, people can gain a more complete view of the ritual systems back then.". M204:15)4 (fig. Updated: 2019-07-25 07:55. However, the biggest cong ever found, a 6.5-kg article commonly referred to as the "king of cong" due to its size, is probably too heavy to be worn. It has the same configuration and incised details as the present cong with the addition of mythical birds with pointed beaks, long necks, and large wings flanking the humanoid-deity mask on the second tier. The Longshan culture was distinguished by its advanced pottery skills, including the use of pottery wheels. The design typically consists of a zoomorphic mask, described as being frontal, bilaterally symmetrical, with a pair of raised eyes and typically no lower jaw area. Of all the documented Liangzhu jade cong, the third example shares the highest resemblance to the present cong. The nose is similarly carved using shallow relief much like that on the humanoid-deity mask. Drilled from both ends, the large central aperture is enclosed by relatively thin walls.

4). The bi and cong are objects only found in jade in early periods, thought to have had religious or cosmic significance. AN EXTREMELY RARE LIANGZHU CONG The jades of Liangzhu Culture abound in number, diversity, and excel in craftsmanship as some of the most illustrious jade artefacts in the history of Chinese civilization. The headdress is represented by two horizontal raised ridges each engraved with five or six parallel lines in intaglio, bordering a band filled with oblong spirals. "We selected whole sets of jade found in cemeteries and put them on display at the same time," he says. The imagery of tier one and tier two merges to form a humanoid-deity and animal combined mask that is essentially a simplified representation of a ‘Liangzhu Shaman’.The humanoid-deity mask incised on the third tier is identical to that on the first tier. Of all the documented Liangzhu jade cong, the third example shares the highest resemblance to the present cong. Yu 2842)2 (fig. Although it is three-tiered with similar configuration, the incised decorations are much cruder and distinguishably different from the other jade cong described above.Note1 Zhejiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, “Fanshan”, Wen Wu Chubanshe (Cultural Relics Press), 2005, first edition.2 Zhejiang Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, “Yaoshan”, Wen Wu Chubanshe (Cultural Relics Press), 2003, first edition.3 Shen Dexiang of Yuhang County Cultural Management Association: “Archaeological Briefing of Anxi Yaoshan Tomb No. The quality of the stone is superb with some bluish crystalline spots and russet speckles. Early Chinese Jade Civilizations Accessed 27 Jan 2019. The cong are only type of Liangzhu jades with decoration.

Compare and contrast the pottery of the Yangshao and Longshan cultures of the Neolithic era. Jade, in the case of China, refers to the mineral nephrite, the hardest and rarest hard stone. Adventist Youth Honors Answer Book/Arts and Crafts/Ceramics (General Conference). Covered with some light ochre earth encrustations, the vessel has some minor wear on two of the edge with alterations in chicken-bone white colour. Most of the cong from the early Liangzhu Culture have one of the following configurations: single-tier (one humanoid-deity mask), double-tier (one humanoid-deity and animal combined mask), or four-tier (two humanoid-deity and animal combined masks). The four corners of the vessel provide the central axes and the horizontal gauges divide the vessel into three tiers. M204:15)4 (fig. He had served as the Director of the Chinese Society of Archaeology, and the Vice-Chairman of the Jade Specialty Committee of the Chinese Society of Cultural Relics. He was appointed as a Researcher at the Cultural Relics and Archaeology Institute of Zhejiang Province in 1992. The third example is the jade cong excavated at the Yaoshan Site in Yuhang, Zhejiang (No. The present cong is an exceptional treasure of the Liangzhu Culture. Jade has been used in virtually all periods of Chinese history. He is currently a consultant for the Jade Specialty Committee of the Chinese Society of Cultural Relics, and a Vice-Chairman of the Chinese Jade Culture Research Association of Zhejiang Province. Its influence extended from around Lake Tai north to Nanjing and the Chang Jiang, east to Shanghai and the sea, and south to Hangzhou. The inner section of the walls has been carefully polished and slightly convex.The top and bottom collars around the aperture are consistent in size. Wang Mingda Wang Mingda was born in Suzhou in 1943 and graduated from the Department of History with a concentration in archaeology from Peking University in 1966.

More than 1,000 jade articles were found in the cemetery. The configuration of the masks is nearly identical to the two previous examples, but the eyelids of the animal masks are filled with cloud-scrolls just like on the present cong. (7.8 cm.) Below the headdress are the facial features of the mask with the double-circles representing the eyes. Liangzhu jade is characterized by large, finely worked ritual jades, commonly incised with the taotie motif . This boom accompanied the rise in kingship.